Tetrachloroethylene is a nonflammable colorless liquid with a sharp sweet odor; the odor threshold is 1 ppm.  Also, tetrachloroethylene has been shown to cause liver tumors in mice and kidney tumors in male rats. The main pathway is oxidative and occurs in the liver, the first step being epoxidation by cytochrome P450 to tetrachloro-oxirane, resulting in trichloroacetic acid as the major metabolite. The beta-lyase-independent pathway: S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (TCVC) undergoes acetylation to its mercapturate N-acetyl-TCVC and then sulfoxidation to N-acetyl-S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (N-Ac-TCVCS), which is mediated by CYP3A or flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO). NMRI mice were orally exposed to tetrachloroethylene at 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg per day ... tetrachloroethylene was found to accumulate in the spleen. Treatment with this agent is more effective against Necator americanus than against Ancylostoma duodenale ... /Former use/, Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. This pattern is consistent with formation of the toxic intermediate in the primary metabolic pathway of each compound. Barceloux. As a result, tetrachloroethylene can also be persistent in the water because it has a higher density than water and relatively low water solubility. 4. Contraindicated in febrile diseases or in debilitated animals. Differences as high as 20% were often found in the physiological parameters, including differences in average body weight, tissue volumes, and blood flows. , At temperatures over 315 °C (599 °F), such as in welding, tetrachloroethylene can be oxidized into phosgene, an extremely poisonous gas. World Health Organization. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. Experiments with tetra in the isolated perfused rat liver demonstrated TCVG formation and its excretion with the bile; bile collected after the addition of tetra to the isolated perfused liver was unequivocally mutagenic in bacteria in the presence of kidney particulate fractions. The structures of the identified metabolites indicate two different pathways operative in Tetra biotransformation: cytochrome P-450-mediated epoxidation forming reactive metabolites in the liver and conjugation of Tetra with glutathione (GSH) catalyzed by glutathione transferase(s). Tetrachloroethylene is used as a solvent in aerosol products for cleaning tyres, brakes, engines, carburettors and wire; in 2004, such uses accounted for 12% of the total use of tetrachloroethylene in the USA (TURI, 2006). Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene, and many other names (and abbreviations such as "perc" or "PERC", and "PCE"), is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C=CCl2. These aerosol automotive products may be used by the public, as well as by professionals. The biological half-life of tetrachloroethylene metabolites (as measured as total trichloro-compounds) is 144 hours. Plasma albumin adducted with the trichloro derivative, indicating metabolism by the CYP pathway, was found in rats and humans exposed to tetrachloroethylene at 40 ppm for 6 hours. Four parameters of hepatotoxicity were assessed: liver weight, triglycerides, glucose-6-phophatase activity, and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity. Trichloro compounds in the urine of workers exposed to 70-2710 mg/cu m for a few hours or repeatedly over several days were identified as metabolites of tetrachloroethylene ... Trichloroethanol was also found. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Because it has no C-H bonds, carbo n tetrachloride does not easily undergo free-radical . Documentation of the TLV's and BEI's with Other World Wide Occupational Exposure Values. Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Trichloroethylene is a major byproduct, which is separated by distillation. Following exposure on day 11 of pregnancy, radioactivity was high in the neuroepithelium of the developing fetal brain. Several other minor metabolites have been found, including oxalic acid, dichloroacetic acid, ethylene glycol, trichloroacetyl amide, trichloroacetylaminoethanol, thioethers, and carbon dioxide. It is also used in aerosol preparations. (1) The vapor pressure for tetrachloroethylene is 18.47 mm Hg at 25 °C, and it has a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log K ow) of 3.40. Male Swiss-Cox mice received either trichloroethylene (0 to 3200 mg/kg/day) or perchloroethylene (0 to 2000 mg/kg/day) in corn oil by gavage for 6 weeks. Several other methods have been developed. In tetrachloroethylene exposure, urinary metabolite levels of trichloroethanol, total trichloro compounds, and trichloroacetic acid increased until the atmospheric concentration of the solvent reached 50 to 100 ppm; little increase in these metabolites occurred at higher solvent concentration. Structure and uses of ethylchloride, Chloroform, ... tetrachloroethylene. Tetrachloroethylene may be used as a starting material in the synthesis of unsym.-heptachloropropane. Michael Faraday first synthesized tetrachloroethylene in 1821 by thermal decomposition of hexachloroethane. Perchloroethene; perchloroethylene; perc; PCE, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, M. Rossberg et al. Qualitatively, TRI and TETRA toxicokinetics were consistent with previous human studies. Koppel C et al; J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 23 (2-3): 103-15 (1985). Instead of excavation or extraction for above-ground treatment or disposal, tetrachloroethylene contamination has been successfully remediated by chemical treatment or bioremediation. Some radioactivity was also found in the lung, heart, and adrenals. However, the function of neuronal ion channels is perturbed by VOCs. Tetrachloroethylene is a common dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) that can migrate through the subsurface of water (ITRC 2003). Tetrachloroethylene reached near steady-state levels in blood of human volunteers within two hours of continuous exposure. That general pattern of disposition of tetrachloroethylene appears to be consistent after both oral and inhalation dosing. The metabolism of trichloroethylene was linearly related to dose through 1600 mg/kg, but then became saturated. The equilibrium distances and average amplitudes of vibration have been determined for the molecule C2Cl4 by the analysis of quantitative electron diffraction data. The present study examined effects of toluene (TOL), trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PERC) on whole-cell calcium current (ICa) in nerve growth factor-differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Tetrachloroethylene /has been reportedly found/ in breast milk. In microsomal fractions from the liver and kidney of all three species, enzymatic formation of S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)glutathione from tetrachloroethene could not be observed. 5th ed. Other major industrial uses of tetrachloroethylene in Canada during 1990 included the cleaning and degreasing of metals (1.4 kilotonnes) and the production of chlorofluorocarbons (2.2 kilotonnes). After oral dosing in animals, peak blood tetrachloroethylene concentrations are typically reached within 15-30 min, and systemic bioavailability is typically greater than 80%; once absorbed, tetrachloroethylene is rapidly distributed throughout the body, and well-perfused tissues reach a pseudoequilibrium with blood within a few minutes. /Former/, VET: Restrict dietary fat within 2 days before and after use to avoid enhanced absorption of this fat sol liver toxicant. Half-lives for respiratory elimination range from 1 to 72 hr. 1.4 Uses Tetrachloroethylene is mainly used as a solvent in dry cleaning and metal cleaning. In addition, TCVC undergoes sulfoxidation to TCVC-sulfoxide (TCVCS); this is also mediated by CYP3A or FMO. Ghittori S et al; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 48 (9): 786-90 (1987). Approximately 3% was excreted as carbon dioxide, and approximately 23% was excreted in the urine and feces as nonvolatile metabolites. It is widely used as an agent for dry cleaning that’s why it is also known as ‘dry cleaning fluid’. The beta-lyase pathway: Tetrachloroethylene is conjugated with glutathione to S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl) glutathione and is later processed by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and aminopeptidase to S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (TCVC). Estimates state that 85% of tetrachloroethylene produced is released into the atmosphere; while models from OECD assumed that 90% is released into the air and 10% to water. Tetrachloroethene is a manufactured chemical that is widely used in the dry-cleaning of fabrics, including clothes. biological exposure data for urine collected over 4 hr during random sampling for at least 1 yr could be used to evaluate long-term exposure and probability of non-compliance for individual or groups of workers. 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