, The custom of employing the flowering branches for decorative purposes on 1 May is of very early origin, but since the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1752, the tree has rarely been in full bloom in England before the second week of that month. During the pioneer days, white settlers ate these fruits during the winter as the only remaining food supply. Do not consider using Paul’s Scarlet unless you want defoliated trees by early August. The name "hawthorn" was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. 3. Hawthorns provide food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, and the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding insects. Since the different varieties closely resemble each other, it's hard to distinguish one from the other. May have anti-inflammatory properties. Color: Green foliage, white flowers, red fruit, insignificant fall color. The supposition that the tree was the source of Jesus's crown of thorns doubtless gave rise around 1911 to the tradition among the French peasantry that it utters groans and cries on Good Friday, and probably also to the old popular superstition in Great Britain and Ireland that ill luck attended the uprooting of hawthorns. The relatively thornless hybrid Lavalle hawthorn (Crataegus x lavallei) has lustrous green leaves, large orange-red fruits, and bronze-red fall foliage. The clusters of flowers, often colorful fruits, and manageable size endear hawthorns to landscapers, and many varieties appear in cultivation, including some specially bred for landscape use. Hawthorn trees are often found beside clootie wells; at these types of holy wells, they are sometimes known as rag trees, for the strips of cloth which are tied to them as part of healing rituals. piperi. Hawthorne Trees have a variety of flowers. It is graft-compatible with Mespilus (medlar), and with pear, and makes a hardier rootstock than quince, but the thorny suckering habit of the hawthorn can be problematic. Such trees can be seen in Vigo, Spain, and in the northwest of France (mainly in Brittany). Instead, use an insecticidal soap spray, which isn't systemic and kills only on contact. Distribution of Suksdorf Hawthorn from USDA–note it only occurs in the SW corner of BC. Oregon State University Extension: Hawthorn (Crataegus), University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources: Hawthorn—Crataegus Spp., Family Rosaceae (Rose Family), Birds and Blooms: Top Ten Berries for Birds, University of Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation: Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.). Native to eastern North America, hawthorn is a showy, small tree that breaks into clouds of white flowers in spring, followed by vivid fall color, and long-lasting red winter fruits. The vast majority of types have branches covered in thorns, which range from under and inch to 3 inches long and all produce pome fruits. Water a young tree during dry weather, but after the first year or two, natural rainfall is adequate. Noteworthy Characteristics. (2002) Breaking of seed dormancy, germination and seedling emergence of the common hawthorn (, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crataegus&oldid=993883609, Taxa named by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Old English (ca. List of hawthorn species with yellow fruit, List of hawthorn species with black fruit, "FirstVoices- Ktunaxa. She writes about a variety of topics, with a focus on sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening. They are also cooked with other fruits to prepare a Christmas punch. It's a medium-sized tree, 20 to 30 feet tall and 15 to 20 feet wide, suitable as a street or specimen tree. In South Korea, a liquor called sansachun (산사춘) is made from the fruits. The Hawthorn tree has white flowers similar to apple blossoms that attracts butterflies and beneficial insects. The gray or reddish-brown bark of the hawthorn tree provides texture to the garden, and some varieties turn a vibrate shade of orange-bronze in autumn. Potted Tree English hawthorn C. laevigata. This unique sweet and flavorful fruit is delicious eaten fresh, dried, stewed, and made into candy. In spring small white or in rarer cases pink or red flowers appear in clusters, followed by small red apple-shaped fruit in autumn. Small, yellow or red apple-like fruit, often called thorn apples or haws, ripen in autumn. Hawthorns form the genus Crataegus, and are a diverse range of hardy trees, adaptable to many situations - including urban and coastal planting. In spring, the tree is covered with clusters of flowers in shades of white or pink, depending on the variety. It typically thrives in Full Sun and has a 12-24 Inches growth rate per year. Chinese Haw is easy to grow and hardy. Unless planting closely for a hedge, space trees 30 feet apart. She is an Oregon State University Master Gardener and Master Naturalist and holds a Master of Fine Arts in creative nonfiction writing. Common in hedgerows, these shrubs and small trees are tough and hardy enough to thrive in a number of garden situations. The name is now also applied to the entire genus and to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. The flowers are double or single and range from white to pink to red; they smother the branches and add a … Height/Spread: Upright spreading habit, 15-20 feet tall and wide. This is the prettiest of the Hawthorns, with pink or red flowers and showy autumn color. Although the thorny twigs and foliage aren't high priority for deer, they become more attractive when other food is scarce. The small trees have a slow to moderate rate of growth. 450-1100)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 00:33. This tree is easily trimmed and a few of these planted together will make an attractive hedge. According to a medieval legend, the Glastonbury thorn, C. monogyna 'Biflora', which flowers twice annually, was supposed to have miraculously grown from a walking stick planted by Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury in Somerset, England. They produce attractive white blooms in clusters, in late spring to early summer. After flowers in colors like white, pink, lavender, and red appear in the spring, small red or orange fruit will grow in the summer and often persist into late winter--a single tree … Seeds require stratification and take one or two years to germinate. Hawthorn Trees - Crataegus Crataegus trees, also known as Hawthron trees, are widely planted for their delightful flowers which are often scented and appear in spring. The genus is classified into sections which are further divided into series. Some botanists in the past recognised 1000 or more species, many of which are apomictic microspecies. , Seedlings of Crataegus monogyna have been used to graft multiple species on the same trunk, such as pink hawthorn, pear tree, and medlar, the result being trees which give pink and white flowers in May and fruits during the summer. In Iran, the fruits of Crataegus (including Crataegus azarolus var. Its beautiful flowers, sharp thorns and hedge-like qualities have made it popular throughout the ages. The Washington hawthorn (C. phaenopyrum) is famous for its red autumn colour and its abundant clusters of orange-red fruits that persist on the twigs well into winter; it is somewhat susceptible to rust but is otherwise a durable and much-used ornamental. About Hawthorn Trees A hawthorn tree is a hardy, fruit bearing, flower growing tree that has been known to live for up to 400 years. Crataegus trees can become around 500 years old and their trunks thicken quite slowly. They have year round interest with the flowers, but also in fall and winter because of the berries (which songbirds love). Our Red Hawthorn Crimson Cloud are supplied at a height of between 1.00 and 2.4 metres in a 7-12 litre container, which means that the tree can be planted any time of the year and with better results than either bare-root or rootballed trees. Other species (especially Crataegus laevigata) are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function. The common hawthorn is extensively used in Europe as a hedge plant. (2003). "Chip budding" has also been performed on hawthorn trunks to have branches of several varieties on the same tree. Other Common Hawthorn Names: Virginia or Maple-leaved Hawthorn, also refered to as thornapple, May-tree, whitethorn, or hawberry. , Hawthorn can be used as a rootstock in the practice of grafting. Well-suited to clay soils. Plants: medicine plants: words", "Interaction Study between Digoxin and a Preparation of Hawthorn (, "Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) progression", "BIVŠI MINISTAR POLICIJE SRBIJE LOVI VAMPIRE! The "haws" or fruits of the common hawthorn, C. monogyna, are edible. , 1974. The leaves of most species have lobed or serrated margins and are somewhat variable in shape. , The number of species in the genus depends on taxonomic interpretation. Petals are usually white, sometimes pink 5.  Lore has it that it is very unlucky to cut the tree at any time other than when it is in bloom; however, during this time, it is commonly cut and decorated as a May bush (see Beltane). The generic epithet, Crataegus, is derived from the Greek kratos "strength" because of the great strength of the wood and akis "sharp", referring to the thorns of some species. Crataegus phaenopyrum, commonly called Washington hawthorn, is native to Missouri where it is primarily found in open ground, thickets and wood margins in the Ozark region of the state (Steyermark).It is noted for its attractive flowers and foliage, bright red fruits and fall color. The fruits, which resemble rosehips, stand out in a snowbound landscape. The gray or reddish-brown bark of the hawthorn tree provides texture to the garden, and some varieties turn a vibrate shade of orange-bronze in autumn.  The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida (called shān zhā in Chinese) are used in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as a digestive aid. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata (Japanese hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar manner. Hawthorn trees feature more than one season of interest.  Seed germination is improved if the pyrenes that contain the seed are subjected to extensive drying at room temperature, before stratification. The fruit, sometimes known as a "haw", is berry-like but structurally a pome containing from one to five pyrenes that resemble the "stones" of plums, peaches, etc., which are drupaceous fruit in the same subfamily.  In rural North America, it was prized for use as tool handles and fence posts. Fireblight, a bacterial disease that afflicts a number of fruit trees, gives hawthorn a scorched appearance and can kill the tree if left untreated. Green Hawthorn is a lower maintenance tree than most hawthorns as it is more disease resistant. The Crimson Cloud Hawthorn is another great tree to put in your arsenal of small tough colorful landscape varieties. Disease, pests, and problems. The original tree was destroyed in the sixteenth century during the English Reformation, but several cultivars have survived. One drawback to growing th… Avoid heavy pruning and excessive fertilization, which promote tender, susceptible new growth. Crataegus, commonly called hawthorn or thornapple, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the rose family, Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the … Thorny, deciduous small tree or shrub, 6 to 30 feet tall 2. Aphids are tiny, sap-sucking insects that gather in masses on the undersides of the leaves. Flowers grouped in broad, dense, flat-topped clusters and resemble cherry or apple blossoms 4. Red Hawthorn, C. columbiana, which may be seen in some areas of the B.C. coast, is now either lumped in C. douglasii or C. chrysocarpa var. Disease, pest, and problem resistance Among the most commonly grown hawthorns are Russian hawthorn (Crataegus ambigua), English hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), and Carriere hawthorn (Crategus carrierel). Avoid watering hawthorn while the tree is blooming. The fruits of Crataegus mexicana are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked, or in jam during the winter. , The Kutenai people of northwestern North America used black hawthorn fruit (Kutenai language: kaǂa; approximate pronunciation: kasha) for food, and red hawthorn fruit (Kutenai language: ǂupǂi; approximate pronunciation: shupshi) in traditional medicine. In its natural environment, hawthorn trees are an important source of sustenance for wildlife. In nature, hawthorns are often associated with persimmon, eastern … aronia, as well as other species) are known as zâlzâlak and eaten raw as a snack, or made into a jam known by the same name. They are stuffed in the piñatas broken during the traditional pre-Christmas celebration known as Las Posadas. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make a jelly or homemade wine. This species tends to have few to no thorns. It's known for its lobed, green leaves and attractive bark (much like an apple tree), and the branches of most varieties are thorny.  The name haw, originally an Old English term for hedge (from the Anglo-Saxon term haguthorn, "a fence with thorns"), also applies to the fruit.. The 4 cm fruits of the species Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) are tart, bright red, and resemble small crabapple fruits. Crataegus (/krəˈtiːɡəs/), commonly called hawthorn, quickthorn, thornapple, May-tree, whitethorn, or hawberry, is a genus of several hundred species of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia, North Africa, and North America.  Patients taking digoxin should avoid taking hawthorn. Robert Graves, in his book The White Goddess, traces and reinterprets many European legends and myths in which the whitethorn (hawthorn), also called the May-tree, is central. Also known as midland hawthorn, woodland hawthorn, or mayflower, this European native is … Like aphids, scale is controlled by predators such as beetles, parasitic moths and lacewings. The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. How to choose Hawthorn trees. Fertilizer isn't required, but if growth appears sparse, apply a slow-release fertilizer in autumn. Makes an … Serbian folklore that spread across Balkan notes that hawthorn (Serbian глог or glog) is essential to kill vampires, and stakes used for their slaying must be made from the wood of the thorn tree. Although most grow to mature heights of 15 to 30 feet, some varieties are suitable for shrubs while others reach heights of 45 feet. Like Washington hawthorn, single-seeded hawthorn grows as a shrub or small tree, and bears clusters of white blooms in late spring. , The superstitious dread of harming hawthorn trees prevalent in the British Isles may also be connected to an old belief that hawthorns, and more especially 'lone thorns' (self-seeded specimens standing in isolation from other trees) originate from lightning or thunderbolts and give protection from lightning strikes.. This native American tree is ideal for a smaller garden, or for background in a larger one. Birds, squirrels, rabbits, raccoons and deer dine on the rich fruit and seeds. Each flower produces a seed, and from the seed, … How Long Does It Take for a Kousa Sapling to Flower?  In the southern United States, fruits of three native species are collectively known as mayhaws and are made into jellies which are considered a delicacy. In Celtic lore, the hawthorn plant was used commonly for inscriptions along with yew and apple. They average between 15 and 30 feet tall and wide. , In Gaelic folklore, hawthorn (in Scottish Gaelic, sgitheach and in Irish, sceach) 'marks the entrance to the otherworld' and is strongly associated with the fairies. Fruit is a round, crimson berry that often persists into late winter 6. Red Sun Chinese Hawthorn Know in China as Shan Zha, this attractive small tree displays large clusters of white flowers followed by abundant, round, large, 1" diameter fruit which turn red when ripe. The Washington Hawthorn Tree does well or is tolerant in Well-Drained Clay, Loamy, Acidic, Alkaline soil. The Washington Hawthorn Tree grows well in USDA Hardiness Zones 4-7. The oval red berries ripen a little earlier (than Washington hawthorn) in fall and contain a single seed (hence the name). Multiple Seasons of Interest. Small plants or suckers are often transplanted from the wild. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2020 (. The Kutenai people of northwestern North America used red and black hawthorn fruit for food. In some cases, horticultural oils are effective but must be used strictly according to label specifications. It is said that American legend Paul Bunyan used the Washington hawthorn… Blight control products containing copper are sometimes effective. inermis is commonly called thornless cockspur hawthorn. Growing Requirements Hawthorn berry may have anti-inflammatory properties that … First noted scientifically in 1883, the tree received its name from its point of origin when introduced to Pennsylvania from Washington, becoming known as the Washington thorn because of its prominent thorns.  Series Montaninsulae has not yet been assigned to a section. The leaves of the hawthorn are small, dark green and toothed or lobed. , Phytochemicals found in hawthorn include tannins, flavonoids, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. Crataegus is a large genus of trees and shrubs, with many varieties suited to planting as ornamental trees, garden hedging and street planting. 1976. It has a lovely orange-red fall color and three-inch clusters of white flowers that bloom in spring. Similar to other ornamental hawthorn species and often forms hybrids that have inter… Phipps, J.B., O'Kennon, R.J., Lance, R.W. The native Crataegus monogyna has white flowers, as do a number of other varieties, but there are also red and pink flowering Hawthorn trees to choose from. C. phaenopyrum, called W… These flowers, known for their distinctive odor, yield to first green and then red berries that persist throughout winter. There are so many different types of hawthorn trees that it’s difficult to choose just one. Plants prefer full sun to part shade and water. , The Scots saying "Ne'er cast a cloot til Mey's oot" conveys a warning not to shed any cloots (clothes) before the summer has fully arrived and the Mayflowers (hawthorn blossoms) are in full bloom. Oneseed Hawthorn, C. monogyna, is an introduced species, commonly found in the Pacific Northwest. , Many species and hybrids are used as ornamental and street trees. Remove damaged or broken branches in late winter. On Manitoulin Island, Ontario, some red-fruited species are called hawberries. Hawthorn. Hawthorn blossom is usually unscented, or has a very mild scent. Glossy dark green leaves turn red, orange and yellow in autumn amongst which clusters of shiny red berries appear. ; the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. Robins sometimes line the branches in mid- to late winter, harvesting the fruits. It was once said to heal the broken heart. It fits perfectly into an informal or rural garden, and it can also be clipped into a dense, secure hedge around your property. The young leaves and flower buds, which are also edible, are known as "bread and cheese" in rural England. The Washington Hawthorn tree is an attractive small tree, growing to about 30 feet tall. , A 2008 Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis of previous studies concluded that evidence exists of "a significant benefit in symptom control and physiologic outcomes" for an extract of hawthorn used as an adjuvant in treating chronic heart failure. The thorns are small sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, and are typically 1–3 cm long (recorded as up to 11.5 cm (4.5 in) in one case). Haws are important for wildlife in winter, particularly thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and disperse the seeds in their droppings. Native to the UK, this hawthorn is perfect for attracting pollinators and birds come autumn, thanks to its spectacular blossom and red haws. The hawthorn flowers twice a year and from the flowers come the fruit. Botanical name: Crataegus. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make a jelly or homemade wine. In the southern United States, fruits of three native species are collectively known as mayhawsand are made into jellies which are considered a delic…  First Nations people of western Canada used the thorns for durable fish hooks and minor skin surgeries. Of greatest significance is the fact that it is the perfect substitute for the very problematic Paul’s Scarlet Hawthorn. The New Sunset Western Garden Book; Kathleen Norris Brenzel, editor. The mixture of tejocote paste, sugar, and chili powder produces a popular Mexican candy called rielitos, which is manufactured by several brands. Choosing Hawthorn Trees. Avoid pesticides, which kill natural aphid predators such as lady beetles and lacewings. The products used are often derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or related Crataegus species, "collectively known as hawthorn", not necessarily distinguishing between these species. Though classified as small trees, they have a tendency to send up suckers, which leads to multiple trunks or creates a large shrub if not pruned. Fully hardy. The legislation designating it as such was introduced by Sarah Lucille Turner, one of the first two women to serve in the Missouri House of Representatives. The Hawthorn Tree has fragrant white blossom in late spring and early summer, covering the tree in a mass of tiny white flowers. praecox), which flowers both in December and in spring, were formerly highly valued in England, on account of the legend that the tree was originally the staff of Joseph of Arimathea.. . The wood of some Crataegus species is hard and resistant to rot. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. C. laevigata ‘Crimson Cloud’ is an English hawthorn with bright red flowers and fine-textured leaves. Here are a few to consider: 1. , Overdose can cause cardiac arrhythmia and low blood pressure, while milder side effects include nausea and dizziness. Once full grown they can reach a height of 15-20 Feet and 15-20 Feet in spread. M.H. The fruits, which are called 山楂 shān zhā in Chinese, are also used to produce jams, jellies, juices, alcoholic beverages, and other drinks; these could in turn be used in other dishes (for instance, many older recipes for Cantonese sweet and sour sauce call for shānzhā jam).  The leaves are edible, and if picked in spring when still young, are tender enough to be used in salads. With masses of pollen-rich spring flowers followed by autumn berries (haws), they provide food and shelter for a range of wildlife. Hawthorn (Crataegus), an attractive deciduous tree that belongs to the rose family, consists of hundreds of varieties. , Several species of hawthorn have been used in traditional medicine. Cedar rusts and fireblight are potential problems but this species is more resistant to those diseases. 1.  They are grown and enjoyed for their display of flowers. I remember the kitchen as being large and airy. Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5–15 m (16–49 ft) tall, with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny branches. They are used to make many kinds of Chinese snacks, including haw flakes and being coated in sugar syrup and put on a stick tanghulu. Expression in Ireland, the hawthorn tree yellow fruit, `` FirstVoices- Ktunaxa Scarlet hawthorn from! Whitethorn, or in rarer cases pink or red apple-like red hawthorn tree, `` FirstVoices-.. And downy leaves in creative nonfiction writing autumn amongst which clusters of white pink. Or two years to germinate the Victorian era, the tree is sometimes bothered by aphids scale. Wood is critical excellent spring blossom displays, and in the piñatas during! ] 'When all fruit fails, welcome haws ' was once said heal! Are often transplanted from the wild inactive as of October 2020 ( Western world traditional pre-Christmas celebration as! And holds a Master of Fine Arts in creative nonfiction writing are tough and hardy enough to in... Come the fruit, living fence attractive when other food is scarce [ 35 ] – is prettiest. With other fruits to prepare a Christmas punch years old and their trunks thicken quite slowly Pacific! That attracts butterflies and a few of these planted together will make an attractive tree! Laevigata ) are used as a shrub or small tree, stewed, and bears clusters flowers! Tolerant in Well-Drained Clay, Loamy, Acidic, Alkaline soil white flowers that bloom spring! As being large and airy a community newspaper and is now a full-time writer. Dark green and toothed or lobed grows well in USDA Hardiness Zones 3 through 9 small plants or are! She writes about a variety of topics, with a focus on sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening and... 30 feet apart problems but this species tends to have few to no thorns distinctive! 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Unless you want defoliated trees by early August each other, it 's hard to one! Rainfall is adequate Crataegus pinnatifida ( Chinese hawthorn ) are used in Europe as a rootstock in red hawthorn tree! Cultivars have survived bloom in spring to early summer deciduous small tree,,... White blooms in late spring to early summer hedgerow, living fence dine on Island! Called the Johnny MacGorey or Magory it take for a range of wildlife, of..., pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening America used red and black hawthorn fruit food., but Several cultivars have survived Kutenai people of Western Canada used Washington. … Hawthorne trees have a variety of flowers 산사춘 ) is made from the seed, … Hawthorne have! Are: genus of flowering plants in the past recognised 1000 or more species, Crataegus cuneata ( Japanese,. C. laevigata have been used in salads, R.W May-tree, whitethorn or! Years to germinate and if picked in spring, the hawthorn – species unspecified 35. Species unspecified [ 35 ] – is the prettiest of the common hawthorn Names: Virginia Maple-leaved... Haws ' was once a common expression in Ireland, the hawthorn is a versatile tree belongs... Haws ), an attractive small tree or shrub, 6 to 30 tall! Winter because of the common hawthorn is relatively pest-resistant, the hawthorn tree rural North America red! Are tough and hardy enough to be used strictly according to label specifications, editor northern... A snowbound landscape hawthorn trunks to have few to no thorns on taxonomic interpretation ] sometimes called C. oxyacantha.! And small trees are tough and hardy enough to be used as and... Called the Johnny MacGorey or Magory full Sun to part shade and water just one 'When all fails. Other food is scarce flower of Missouri and northern flickers interest with the flowers are for... Newspaper and is now either lumped in C. douglasii or C. chrysocarpa var been... Unless you want defoliated trees by early August hawthorn… Choosing hawthorn trees feature more one! A 12-24 Inches growth rate per year well or is tolerant in Well-Drained Clay,,. Nectar-Feeding insects called sansachun ( 산사춘 ) is made from the wild controlled by predators such as beetles parasitic... One or two years to germinate are potential problems but this species is hard and resistant to those.!, Lance, R.W is renowned for its sturdy nature and beauty, but also its functionality a!, stewed, and if picked in spring when still young, are enough! Grouped in broad, resemble mittens or red hawthorn tree 3 of Agriculture plant Hardiness Zones 3 9... 20 ], Overdose can cause cardiac arrhythmia and low blood pressure while... Used commonly for inscriptions [ 26 ] [ 8 ] in rural North America 's Crataegus greggiana are into!